What is Panendoscopy? A type of Upper Endoscopy

June 8, 2024 Cancer Hub 22 Views

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What is Panendoscopy?

Panendoscopy, also known as triple endoscopy or upper endoscopy, is a diagnostic procedure used mainly by the ENT (ear, nose, and throat) specialist to examine the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, and trachea. 

This procedure combines the use of three types of endoscopes, namely a nasal endoscope, a laryngoscope, and an esophagoscope.

Panendoscopy is an important tool that helps in diagnosing and managing conditions affecting the head and neck region, such as cancers, structural abnormalities, and chronic inflammatory diseases.

What are the components of upper endoscopy?

Panendoscopy includes the following components:

Nasal endoscopy: This part of the procedure involves the examination of the nasal passages and sinuses. It helps in identifying conditions such as nasal polyps (painless growths inside the nose), sinusitis (sinus inflammation), and tumors. A thin, flexible tube with a light and camera, known as a nasal endoscope, is inserted into the nostrils to provide a detailed picture of the nasal cavity and sinuses.

Laryngoscopy: It is used to visualize the larynx (voice box) and vocal cords. It can be performed using a flexible or rigid laryngoscope. This component is important for detecting abnormalities such as vocal cord nodules (non-cancerous growths present on the vocal cords), polyps (abnormal tissue growths), and cancers of the larynx.

Esophagoscopy: This part helps in the examination of the esophagus, which is a muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. An esophagoscope, which may be flexible or rigid, is passed down the throat to detect conditions such as esophageal cancer, strictures, and Barrett’s oesophagus.

What are the indications of upper endoscopy?

Panendoscopy is indicated for different diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, which may include the following:

  • Diagnosis and staging of cancers of the larynx, pharynx, or esophagus
  • Evaluation of symptoms like persistent hoarseness, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), unexplained weight loss, chronic cough, and bleeding 
  • Location and removal of foreign body lodged in the upper respiratory or digestive tracts of the body
  • Checking the congenital or acquired structural abnormalities, such as stenosis (narrowing) or atresia (absence of normal body opening)
  • Diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory diseases like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 

What is the diagnostic procedure before upper endoscopy?

The following diagnostic procedures may be for before undergoing panendoscopy:

  • Physical examination: The patient’s symptoms and medical history are evaluated by the doctor to determine any underlying conditions that may impact the procedure of panendoscopy.
  • Blood Tests: These tests help in the assessment of the patient’s overall health and identification of any potential issues.
  • Imaging Studies: Imaging studies, such as X-rays or CT scans, may be performed to provide additional information about the areas to be examined during the panendoscopy.

How to prepare for upper endoscopy?

Proper preparation is important for the success and safety of a panendoscopy. This involves the following step:

  • Let your doctor know about your medical history.
  • Inform your doctor about any current medicines that you may be taking.
  • The doctor may recommend stopping blood-thinning medicines a few days before the procedure.
  • The doctor may stop or adjust the dose of certain medications that you may be taking before the procedure.
  • The patient needs to wear loose, comfortable clothes on the day of the procedure.
  • The patient needs to fast (not eat or drink anything) for 8 to 12 hours before the procedure.
  • The patient is instructed to avoid wearing makeup, jewelry, or nail polish, as they can affect the procedure and equipment for monitoring.

How is the procedure of upper endoscopy performed?

Panendoscopy is usually performed under general anesthesia (patient is made unconscious) to ensure patient comfort and safety. The procedure involves the following steps:

  • The patient is first given general anesthesia to make the patient unconscious and the procedure painless.
  • The ENT specialist will then insert the endoscopes one by one. The nasal endoscope is inserted first to examine the nasal cavity and sinuses. The laryngoscope is then inserted to visualize the larynx and vocal cords. Finally, the esophagoscope is used to inspect the esophagus.
  • The endoscopes have cameras that transmit images to a monitor, allowing the specialist to inspect the mucosal surfaces for abnormalities. Biopsies (tissue samples) can be taken from suspicious areas for pathological examination.
  • After a thorough examination and necessary interventions, the endoscopes are removed.
  • The patient is then taken to the recovery room for monitoring. 

( Know more about- Cost of Endoscopy in Mumbai )

How to care after upper endoscopy?

  • Recovery from panendoscopy is usually smooth and quick.
  • The patient could experience mild throat discomfort, hoarseness, or nasal congestion, which usually resolves within a few days.
  • Initially, a soft or liquid diet may be recommended to avoid irritating the throat and esophagus.
  • Pain relief medications or antibiotics may be prescribed to manage discomfort and prevent infection.
  • The patient needs to attend follow-up appointments to discuss biopsy results and further management.

What are the risks of upper endoscopy ?

Panendoscopy may lead to the following complications:

  • Infection 
  • Bleeding 
  • Tear or perforation 
  • Allergic reaction to anesthesia 

We hope that we were able to answer all your questions about panendoscopy through this article.

If you want more information about panendoscopy, you can contact a good gastroenterologist at the best hospitals like H N Reliance Hospital Mumbai

We only aim to give you information through the article and do not recommend any medication or treatment in any way. Only a qualified doctor can give you good advice because no one else is better than them.

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