What are the Causes of Cardiomyopathy ?

November 27, 2020 Heart Diseases 724 Views

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Cardiomyopathy is a progressive disease of the myocardium or heart muscle. In most cases, the heart muscle becomes weak and is not able to pump blood to the rest of the body. There are many different types of cardiomyopathy, from coronary heart disease to certain medications. All these can lead to an irregular heartbeat, heart failure, heart valve problem, or other complications. Medical treatment and follow-up care are important. This can help prevent heart failure or other complications. Let us get information about Cardiomyopathy in detail. 

  • Types of Cardiomyopathy 
  • What are the Causes of Cardiomyopathy? 
  • What are the Symptoms of Cardiomyopathy? 
  • What are the Treatments of Cardiomyopathy?  

Types of Cardiomyopathy 

There are usually four types of cardiomyopathy. 

  • Dilated cardiomyopathy – The most common form is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) when your heart muscle is too weak to pump blood efficiently. The muscles stretch and become thin. This allows your heart chambers to expand. It is also known as an enlarged heart. You can inherit it, or it may be due to coronary artery disease. 
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy – Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is believed to be genetic. This is when the walls of your heart become thick and prevent blood from flowing through your heart. This is a fairly common type of cardiomyopathy. It may also be due to prolonged high blood pressure or aging. Diabetes or thyroid disease can also cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  • Arrhythmic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a very rare form of cardiomyopathy, but is the leading cause of sudden death in young athletes. In this type of genetic cardiomyopathy, fat and excess fibrous tissue replace the muscles of the right ventricle. This causes abnormal heart rhythms. 
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy – Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common form. This occurs when the ventricles become stiff and cannot relax enough to fill with blood. Heart scars, which often occur after heart transplantation, maybe one reason. It can also occur as a result of heart disease. 

What are the Causes of Cardiomyopathy?  

The cause of cardiomyopathy is not known. But it can also occur in people due to some underlying condition. Children can also inherit this disease from their parents. Cardiomyopathy may have some of the following causes. 

  • Heart valve problems. 
  • Complications during pregnancy. 
  • Iron accumulation in heart muscle. 
  • Metabolic disorders. 
  • Connective tissue disorders. 
  • High BP problem for a long time. 
  • Lack of essential vitamins and minerals in the body. 
  • Reaction of chemotherapy drugs. 

What are the Symptoms of Cardiomyopathy? 

All types of cardiomyopathy have similar symptoms. In all cases, the heart cannot adequately pump blood into body tissues and organs. This can result in symptoms such as. 

  • General weakness and fatigue 
  • Shortness of breath, especially during exertion or exercise 
  • Dizziness 
  • Pain in chest 
  • Heart palpitations 
  • Fainting episodes  
  • High blood pressure 
  • Edema, or swelling, in feet and ankles 

What are the Treatments of Cardiomyopathy? 

Treatment depends on the type of cardiomyopathy and the resulting symptoms. 

  • Some people may not require treatment until symptoms appear. Others, who struggle with shortness of breath or chest pain may need to make some lifestyle changes or take medications. 
  • You cannot reverse or cure cardiomyopathy, but you can control it with the following options. 
  • Heart-healthy lifestyle changes. 
  • Medications are used to treat high blood pressure, prevent water retention, keep the rhythm of the heart normal, prevent blood clots, and reduce inflammation.
  • Surgically implanted devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators
  • Heart transplant surgery is considered as last resort. 
  • The goal of treatment is to make your heart as efficient as possible and to help prevent further damage and loss of function. 

To get more information about the treatment of cardiomyopathy, contact a Cardiologist.

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