What is Hematuria (Blood in Urine)

Dr Shailesh Raina

Dr Shailesh Raina

Urologist, Jaslok Hospital, 25 years of experience

August 10, 2021 Lifestyle Diseases 867 Views

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What is the meaning of Hematuria ( Blood in Urine )? 

A person becomes very fearful when blood comes in urine. This can be a minor disease or a sign of a serious disease. In many cases, the problem of blood in urine gets complicated. When the blood is visible in the urine, it is called Gross Hematuria in the medical language. When the blood is not visible to the naked eye but spotted on microscopic examination, it is called Microscopic Hematuria. The problem of blood in urine can also be related to other disorders. For this, the doctor examines the urine sample to find out the cause. Healthy urine does not contain even a small amount of blood. Mostly, blood in urine is seen in people who suffer from any problem related to the kidney or urethra. 

Let us try to explain in detail about hematuria in this article. 

  • What are the types of Hematuria?
  • What are the causes of Hematuria? 
  • What are the symptoms of Hematuria? 
  • What are the treatments for Hematuria? 
  • Prevention of Hematuria

What are the types of Hematuria?

There are mainly two types of hematuria. 

  • Gross hematuria – If you have enough blood in your urine that the color of your urine looks pink or red, or there are visible blood spots, then you have “gross hematuria”.
  • Microscopic hematuria – When you cannot see blood, because the amount is so small, you have “microscopic hematuria”. Only a laboratory test that detects blood or looking at a urine sample under a microscope can confirm microscopic hematuria. ( Know more about- What is Acute Kidney Failure? )

What are the causes of Hematuria? 

There can be many reasons for hematuria, which include: 

  • Artificial food colors
  • Diet including beetroot, blueberries, paprika, etc 
  • Strenuous exercising
  • Certain drugs like sulphonamides, desferrioxamine, levodopa, metronidazole, etc
  • Kidney diseases such as – glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, pyelonephritis, renal stones, polycystic kidney disease, trauma to the kidneys.( Know more about- Home remedies for Kidney Cleansing )
  • Uterine causes such as – infection, strictures, trauma, stones. (Know more about- What are Kidney stones? )
  • Urinary bladder causes such as – trauma, tumor, stricture, infections, stones.( Know more about- What is Bladder Cancer? )
  • Prostatic causes such as – trauma, tumor, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. 
  • Urethral infection or trauma.
  • Incorrect urinary catheterization
  • Inherited disorders like sickle cell anemia and other blood disorders.

What are the symptoms of Hematuria? 

Gross hematuria can cause the urine to turn a shade of pink, red, or cola-colored on account of red blood cells. Blood in the urine is often unaccompanied by other signs or symptoms but should not be ignored especially if one also experiences nausea, vomiting, pain in the abdomen, fever, and frequent or painful urination.

What are the treatments for Hematuria? 

Hematuria is treated depending on the cause of hematuria. First, the doctor will conduct some investigations to confirm the cause of hematuria. Depending on the cause, the treatment is prescribed. Mild hematuria can be treated by taking some medications like antibiotics.

If urinary or renal cancer is detected in the test, then the line of treatment differs considerably. Some modalities of treatment include shock therapy to break the bladder or kidney stones. If there is a suspected trauma, it is dealt with differently. ( Know more about- What is Cystoscopy? )

Prevention of Hematuria 

Some of the following methods can prevent hematuria. 

  • To prevent infection, drink plenty of water daily.
  • Pass urine immediately posts sexual intercourse and maintain good hygiene. 
  • Avoid excess salt in the diet and some foods such as spinach and rhubarb. 
  • To prevent bladder cancer, one should avoid smoking, limit exposure to chemicals, and drink plenty of water.  

We hope that we could answer your questions regarding Hematuria ( Blood in Urine ) through this article. 

If you want more information and treatment of Hematuria ( Blood in Urine ) , you can contact a Nephrologist.

We only aim to give you information through this article. We do not recommend medication, treatment in any way. Only a doctor can give you the best advice.

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