Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery 

December 8, 2020 Womens Health 1046 Views

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What is an Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery?

Ovarian cyst removal surgery is a surgery performed to remove a cyst or multiple cysts from one or both ovaries of a woman. Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that are found in the ovary or its surface. They are commonly seen in women during their reproductive years. Ovarian cysts are usually painless and get treated on their own. Ovarian cysts that don’t get treated on their own, and grow bigger with time may be painful and require treatment by a doctor. They may even cause cancer, but the chances are rare.

Let us tell you in detail about Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery through this article.

  • What are the types of Ovarian Cysts?
  • What are the causes of Ovarian Cysts?
  • What are the symptoms of Ovarian Cysts?
  • Why is Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery performed?
  • How to diagnose Ovarian Cysts?
  • How to prepare for Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery?
  • How is Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery done?
  • Why is Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery performed?
  • What is the post-surgical care after Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery?
  • What are the risks of Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery?
  • What is the cost of Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery in India? 

What are the types of Ovarian Cysts?

The three main types of Ovarian cysts are as follows-

Functional Ovarian Cysts 

These types of cysts are a part of a woman’s monthly menstrual cycle. The different types of functional ovarian cysts are:

  • Follicular cyst: This is the most common type of Ovarian Cyst that occurs due to the growth of a follicle. A fluid-filled sac that consists of an egg is known as a follicle. When this follicle grows larger than its normal size and does not open to release an egg it leads to the formation of a follicular cyst. Follicular cysts usually resolve on their own in about 1 to 3 months of time.
  • Corpus Luteum cyst: After the egg is released, the follicle shrinks and gets ready for the egg in the next menstrual cycle. This follicle may become a cyst when it closes back and there is an accumulation of fluid inside. This is known as a Corpus Luteum Cyst. It usually goes away in a couple of weeks. But, it may lead to pain and bleeding as it grows.
  • Non-functional Ovarian Cysts

These types of cysts are not related to a woman’s normal menstrual cycle. Some of the non-functional cysts are:

  • Dermoid cyst: Generally non-cancerous in nature, a dermoid cyst develops in a woman during her reproductive years.
  • Teratomas: A type of tumor which is made up of tissues like the muscle, bone, and the hair. Teratomas can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
  • Cystadenoma: Cystadenomas are commonly seen as benign epithelial neoplasms.
  • Endometriomas: A condition in which the cells that are usually present in the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) start growing outside the uterus. These cells can get attached to the ovary leading to the formation of cysts called endometriomas.
  • Cancerous Ovarian cysts: Cancerous ovarian cysts are more common in older women after menopause (monthly periods have stopped) rather than in younger women of reproductive age. ( Know more about- What is Uterine Cancer Treatment? )
  • Multiple small cysts: In some cases, the ovaries in a woman lead to the formation of many small cysts. This leads to a condition known as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). This condition can adversely affect a woman’s chance to get pregnant. ( Know more about- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome/PCOS: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments )

What are the causes of Ovarian Cysts?

The following are some of the causes that may increase the chances of a woman developing an ovarian cyst:

  • Pregnancy: The cyst formation that takes place during ovulation can stay on the ovary when the woman gets pregnant, and even stay throughout the pregnancy. ( Know more about- What is Birth Control Pills? )
  • Endometriosis: A condition in which the cells that are usually present in the inner lining of the uterus start growing outside the uterus. These cells can get attached to the ovary leading to the formation of cysts.
  • History of ovarian cyst: If a woman has a history of having at least one ovarian cyst earlier, there is a chance she may be susceptible to the formation of more ovarian cysts in the future.
  • Pelvic infections: An infection of the female reproductive organs that is severe may spread to the ovaries leading to the formation of ovarian cysts.
  • Hormonal disorders: Hormonal disorders may include the use of fertility drugs like Clomid (clomiphene) that help a woman to ovulate. ( Know more about- What is Hormonal Imbalance in Females? )

What are the symptoms of Ovarian Cysts?

Most ovarian cysts are small and do not have any symptoms. When an ovarian cyst is larger it may show symptoms such as:

  • Pain in the abdomen or pelvis
  • Lower back pain  ( Know more about- Lower Back Pain During Periods )
  • Indigestion
  • Stomach fullness
  • An urgency to pass urine
  • Difficulty in completely emptying the bladder
  • Having an urge to pass stools
  • Difficult bowel movement
  • Edema or swelling in the legs
  • Abdominal discomfort and bloating
  • Altered menstrual pattern
  • Pain during sexual intercourse ( Know more about- What is a C section delivery? )

Why is Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery performed?

The main purpose of doing this surgery varies depending on the cause and the severity of the condition. Some of the reasons for performing this surgery are:

  • For relieving the patient’s symptoms of abdominal pain, cramps, or discomfort. ( Know more about- What is Uterine Fibroids? )
  • To send the cyst for investigation in the laboratory
  • For treatment of menstrual irregularity
  • Prevention of further enlargement of the cyst
  • Removal of the cyst to prevent it from turning into a tumor ( Know more about- What is Cervical Cancer? )
  • Prevent the twisting of the ovary (called torsion)
  • Prevention of rupture of the cyst that may cause internal bleeding
  • Preventing infection of the cyst
  • To stop the tumor, if any, from spreading into other organs

How to diagnose Ovarian Cysts?

A doctor can accidentally find cysts during a pelvic examination. After performing a thorough physical examination of the patient, the doctor can advise one or more of the following tests to diagnose ovarian cyst:

  • Pregnancy test– A positive pregnancy test may indicate the presence of a corpus Luteum cyst. ( Know more about- What to avoid during Pregnancy ? )
  • Laparoscopy– A thin, long instrument is inserted by the doctor through the belly by making a small incision. This can help in the diagnosis and removal of ovarian cysts.
  • MRI– Helps in determining whether the cyst is more likely to be benign or cancerous.
  • CT scan– It helps in identifying the type of the cyst and its contents.
  • Pelvic ultrasound– Sound waves are used to obtain the image of the uterus and the ovaries to confirm the presence of a cyst, its location, and the type of cyst present.
  • CA 125 Blood test– If a woman has an ovarian cyst that is partially solid in nature, the doctor will prescribe this test to check the level of a protein known as CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) in blood. This is done to identify the presence of certain cancer markers in the blood. The level of CA 125 is generally higher in women with ovarian cancer, and also in cases of endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and uterine fibroids. (Know more about- What is Ovarian Cancer Treatment? )

How to prepare for Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery?

The steps of preparation done before Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery are-

  • The doctor will ask the patient to eat and drink less than usual, 8 hours before the surgery, and completely stop eating and drinking 2 hours before the surgery.
  • The doctor may advise the patient to stop taking certain medications which the patient may be taking for any pre-existing medical conditions until the completion of the surgery.
  • The doctor may give the patient an enema (a kind of fluid is injected through the rectum into the lower bowel), which is done to clean the bowels, before the surgery.
  • Any hair over the abdomen is shaved off before the surgery.
  • An anesthetist will start an intravenous line in the arm to prepare the patient for the surgery.

How is Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery done?

Most ovarian cysts resolve on their own and do not require any treatment.

The doctor may prescribe different modes of treatment depending on the cause of the Ovarian Cyst. The doctor may prescribe medications for pain. In some cases, the doctor may also prescribe birth control pills. Although birth control pills don’t treat Ovarian Cysts, they help in preventing the formation of new cysts.

Ovarian cysts which are large, don’t resolve on their own or cause severe symptoms may require an Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery. Surgery may also be required if the woman is of menopausal age, as ovarian cysts are likely to be cancerous at that age. Depending on the case, the doctor may remove the cyst or the entire ovary.

The Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgeries are usually performed under general anesthesia. There are two types of Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgeries-

1. Laparoscopy

  • Most ovarian cysts can be removed by laparoscopy. In this type of surgery small incisions (cuts) are made on the belly region, and gas is then blown into the pelvis. This allows the doctor to have better access to the ovaries.
  • A laparoscope (which is a thin tube-shaped microscope with a light on one end) is then passed into the abdomen for the surgeon to view the internal organs. The doctor then removes the cyst through the small cuts made on the skin.
  • Once the cyst is removed, the small cuts are closed-back using dissolvable sutures (stitches).
  • Laparoscopy is the preferred mode of surgery as it is less painful and the recovery time is less. Most people can go home on the same day after the procedure.

2. Laparotomy

  • In case of a large ovarian cyst, or case of a suspected cancerous cyst, laparotomy is recommended.
  • Laparotomy is done by making a single, large cut in the belly region to provide the surgeon with better access to the cyst.
  • The whole cyst, as well as ovary, may be removed and sent to the laboratory to check if the cyst is cancerous. The incision is then sutured back.
  • One may need to stay in the hospital for a couple of days after this procedure.

What is the post-surgical care after Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery?

Laparoscopy is a safe and routine procedure that is usually carried out in the Outpatient Department(OPD), and the patient can go home on the same day after gaining consciousness and about an hour of observation.

The patient may experience some pain post-surgery, which can be managed using pain killers. The patient may also experience some bloating and shoulder pain due to the residual gas in the abdomen. Most of these symptoms resolve on their own in a few days.

Laparotomy surgery is performed after admission of the patient to the hospital. The recovery time varies from person to person, but the patient is usually discharged in 3 to 4 days. The person may feel pain in the incision area, which is controlled by using painkillers.

Post-surgery steps of care the patient is advised are-

  • Rest and resume some light, normal activities
  • Avoid strenuous exercise and lifting of heavy objects
  • Refrain from sexual activity
  • Follow the doctor’s dietary advice
  • Take medications prescribed by the doctor
  • Keep the wound dressing dry and clean, and change the dressing as recommended
  • Follow up with the doctor as recommended

Contact the doctor immediately if the patient experiences-

  • Increasing pain in the abdomen
  • Discharge from the wound
  • Fever
  • Excessive nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Pain in the legs

What are the risks of Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery?

The following complications can occur after the ovarian cyst surgery.

  • Irregular menstruation
  • Fever
  • Infection of the surgical wound
  • Pelvic infection
  • Damage to adjoining structures like the bladder or bowel
  • Damage to the nerves causing loss of control over urination or bowel movements
  • Scarring or adhesions may occur
  • A formation of clots in the blood vessels
  • Unusual bleeding from the vagina

What is the cost of Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery in India? 

The total cost of ovarian cyst removal surgery in India can range from around INR 1,15,000 to INR 1,95,000. There are many doctors in India who specialize in ovarian cyst removal surgery, but the cost varies among different hospitals. 

If you are coming from abroad, apart from the cost of the ovarian cyst removal surgery itself, there will be an additional cost of staying in a hotel and the cost of local travel. After the surgery, the patient is kept in the hospital for a few days and advised to stay in the hotel for recovery. So, the total cost of ovarian cyst removal surgery comes to a total of INR 1,50,000 to INR 2,55,000.

We hope we could answer your queries about Ovarian cyst removal surgery through this article.

If you want more information and treatment of Ovarian Cyst Removal Surgery, contact a Gynecologist/Obstetrician.

We only aim to give you information through this article and do not recommend any medication or treatment. Only a qualified doctor can give you the best advice and treatment plan.

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