Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer happens when the cells of the cervix grow abnormally and attack other tissues and organs of the body.

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  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Blood in the urine
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Blood spots or light bleeding after periods 
  • Bleeding after intercourse
  • Bleeding after menopause
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Pap test
  • HPV DNA test
  • Punch biopsy
  • Endocervical curettage
  • Electrical wire loop
  • Cone biopsy
  • Surgery:

Simple hysterectomy. 
Radical hysterectomy.

  • Radiation

X-rays or protons

  • Chemotherapy

Treatment for cancer can have certain side-effects. Surgery poses certain risks such as infection, bleeding, numbness and bruising at the incision site. Due to the total or partial removal of the stomach, the patient may experience problems like diarrhea, nausea, heartburn, abdominal pain and so on. As a result of the chemotherapy and surgery, the patient may feel weak and tired. Fatigue, hair loss, loss of appetite and other such symptoms may also be experienced as a side-effect of the chemotherapy drugs.

The patient may need to stay in the hospital for at least a week post surgery. It may take 3-6 months for complete recovery. Follow-ups with the doctor and testing every 3-6 months would be required to make sure that cancer does not recur.

Cervical Cancer from best Hospitals and Doctors in Mumbai Region

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Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer happens when the cells of the cervix grow abnormally and attack other tissues and organs of the body.

Symptoms

  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Blood in the urine
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Blood spots or light bleeding after periods 
  • Bleeding after intercourse
  • Bleeding after menopause
  • Pain during intercourse

Diagnosis

  • Pap test
  • HPV DNA test
  • Punch biopsy
  • Endocervical curettage
  • Electrical wire loop
  • Cone biopsy

Treatment

  • Surgery:

Simple hysterectomy. 
Radical hysterectomy.

  • Radiation

X-rays or protons

  • Chemotherapy

Risks

Treatment for cancer can have certain side-effects. Surgery poses certain risks such as infection, bleeding, numbness and bruising at the incision site. Due to the total or partial removal of the stomach, the patient may experience problems like diarrhea, nausea, heartburn, abdominal pain and so on. As a result of the chemotherapy and surgery, the patient may feel weak and tired. Fatigue, hair loss, loss of appetite and other such symptoms may also be experienced as a side-effect of the chemotherapy drugs.

After Procedure

The patient may need to stay in the hospital for at least a week post surgery. It may take 3-6 months for complete recovery. Follow-ups with the doctor and testing every 3-6 months would be required to make sure that cancer does not recur.

FAQ Section

1) What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is a form of cancer that starts in the cells in the woman's cervix, which is the opening of the uterus. It connects the vagina to the uterus, and cancer usually commences with changes to the cells on the cervix. These abnormal cells are called dysplasia and can be removed to prevent cancer if found early.

2) How many types of cervical cancer are there?

There are three main types of cervical cancer. They are Squamous Cell, Adenosquamous, and Adenocarcinoma.

  • Adenocarcinoma: Of all the diagnosed cervical cancer, 15 to 20 percent of them are adenocarcinoma. This type of cancer develops in the glandular cells which line the cervical canal can be more difficult to detect with cervical screening tests as it develops within the cervical canal.
  • Adenosquamous: These rare type of cancers are the tumors that contain both squamous and glandular cancer cells.
  • Squamous cell: Eighty percent of all the diagnosed cervical cancers comprise of squamous cell cancers. Squamous cell cancers are easy to diagnose as they are composed of the flat cells covering the surface of the cervix and often begin where the outer surface joins with the cervical canal.

3) What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

Sometimes there may not be any symptoms during the early stages of cervical cancer. But there are some recognized signs associated with cervical cancer that every woman should be aware of. Abnormal bleeding is one of them, especially during or after sexual intercourse or between periods. Postmenopausal bleeding and unusual vaginal discharge are also red flags to watch out for. Other symptoms that are not that easy to recognize is discomfort or pain during sexual intercourse and lower back pain. These symptoms can be associated with many other diseases that are not related to cancer and as symptoms are hard to detect every woman should attend regular cervical screening.  

Other symptoms are:

  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Blood in the urine
  • Rectal bleeding

4) What causes cervical cancer?

  • HPV causes nearly all cases of cervical cancer and is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the west. Both men and women can have HPV and the disease goes away on its own, but if it does not, it could cause cervical cancer.
  • Smoking is another factor that increases the chances of getting cervical cancer.  Women who smoke are about two times more likely to get cervical cancer when compared to women who do not smoke at all. Smoking also weakens the immune system which makes it harder to fight off HPV infections.
  • Aging can also increase the chances of getting cervical cancer. Women over the age of thirty are more likely to get cervical cancer.
  • Other causes of cervical cancer are using birth control pills for five years or longer, giving birth three or more times, having multiple sexual partners, having HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, or another condition that makes it hard for your body to fight off infection. 

5) How to lower your chances of getting cervical cancer?

You should get the HPV vaccine that protects against the types of HPV that most often cause cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine helps to prevent cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancers and also protects against cancer of the anus, mouth, and throat. Cervical cancer can be prevented or found early so you should never miss cervical cancer screening. There are two types of cancer screening: Pap Test and High-Risk HPV test. Finally, you can lower your chances of developing cervical cancer by making healthy choices such as not smoking or quitting cigarettes, using condoms during intercourse.

6) How often should one be screened for cervical cancer?

  • Women should begin cervical cancer screening at twenty years of age.
  • Women ages twenty-one to thirty years should have a Pap test every three years.
  • Women ages thirty-one to sixty-five years have the option to get a Pap test every three years or a Pap test and HR HPV test every five years.

 

7) What is the treatment for cervical cancer?

The best way to get rid of cervical cancer is a hysterectomy which refers to the surgical removal of the uterus and is done under a general anesthetic. 

8) What is radical (Wertheim) Hysterectomy?

While some women may have what is known as a simple hysterectomy where the cervix, uterus, and sometimes part of the fallopian tubes, are removed. But during a radical hysterectomy, the cervix, uterus, and parts of the fallopian tubes are removed in one whole piece so that the surrounding tissue, as well as the tissue at the side of the uterus and the top part of the vagina,  can be easily seen. The procedure may also include the removal of some of the lymph nodes in the pelvis.

9) Where will the scar be after a hysterectomy?

Yes, there is a scar after hysterectomy but it is usually a horizontal line just above the pubic hairline and tends to heal extremely well and is hardly visible once it is healed.

10) Cost of cervical cancer surgery in India?

The cost of the surgery depends on the patient's condition, the facilities available in the hospital, and the method of hysterectomy such as laparoscopic hysterectomies or abdominal, and range between INR 18,000 to INR 2,30,000.