Uterine Cancer Procedure

Uterine cancer is the abnormal (malignant) growth of any cells that comprise uterine tissue. The buildup of cancer cells may form a mass (malignant tumor). Uterine cancer is otherwise known as endometrial cancer. Cancer of endometrial is different from cancer of the muscle of the uterus, which is known as the sarcoma cancer. 
Obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes may increase the risk of uterine cancer. Endometrial cancer may develop in breast cancer patients who have been treated with tamoxifen.  Women taking estrogen (a hormone that can affect the growth of some cancers) alone have an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Taking estrogen combined with progesterone (another hormone) does not increase a woman's risk of this cancer.

 

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The most common symptoms or signs of uterine cancer are vaginal discharge or pain in the pelvis. Other symptoms are :
  • Bleeding or discharge not related to menstruation (periods).
  • Difficult or painful urination.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Pain in the pelvic area.
Because endometrial cancer begins inside the uterus, it does not usually show up in the results of a Pap test. For this reason, a sample of endometrial tissue must be removed and checked under a microscope to look for cancer cells. Some common procedures used are:
  • Endometrial biopsy: The removal of tissue from the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus) by inserting a thin, flexible tube through the cervix and into the uterus. 
  • Dilatation and curettage: A procedure to remove samples of tissue from the inner lining of the uterus. The cervix is dilated and a curette (spoon-shaped instrument) is inserted into the uterus to remove tissue.
  • Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Ultra-sound: A procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and bladder.
Five types of standard treatment are used:
  • Surgery -Surgery (removing the cancer in an operation) is the most common treatment for uterine cancer.
  • Radiation therapy-Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. 
  • Chemotherapy-Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing
  • Hormone therapy-Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from growing. 
  • Biologic therapy-Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer.

Complications may include any of the following: 

  •  Anemia due to blood loss (before diagnosis).
  •  Perforation (hole) of the uterus, which may occur during a D and C or endometrial biopsy. Problems from surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

 

  • Check for recurring tumors and repetitive pelvic follow-up checks are required.
  • Maintenance of genital hygiene is very important. 

 

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Uterine Cancer Procedure

Uterine cancer is the abnormal (malignant) growth of any cells that comprise uterine tissue. The buildup of cancer cells may form a mass (malignant tumor). Uterine cancer is otherwise known as endometrial cancer. Cancer of endometrial is different from cancer of the muscle of the uterus, which is known as the sarcoma cancer. 
Obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes may increase the risk of uterine cancer. Endometrial cancer may develop in breast cancer patients who have been treated with tamoxifen.  Women taking estrogen (a hormone that can affect the growth of some cancers) alone have an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Taking estrogen combined with progesterone (another hormone) does not increase a woman's risk of this cancer.

 

Symptoms

The most common symptoms or signs of uterine cancer are vaginal discharge or pain in the pelvis. Other symptoms are :
  • Bleeding or discharge not related to menstruation (periods).
  • Difficult or painful urination.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Pain in the pelvic area.

Diagnosis

Because endometrial cancer begins inside the uterus, it does not usually show up in the results of a Pap test. For this reason, a sample of endometrial tissue must be removed and checked under a microscope to look for cancer cells. Some common procedures used are:
  • Endometrial biopsy: The removal of tissue from the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus) by inserting a thin, flexible tube through the cervix and into the uterus. 
  • Dilatation and curettage: A procedure to remove samples of tissue from the inner lining of the uterus. The cervix is dilated and a curette (spoon-shaped instrument) is inserted into the uterus to remove tissue.
  • Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Ultra-sound: A procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and bladder.

Treatment

Five types of standard treatment are used:
  • Surgery -Surgery (removing the cancer in an operation) is the most common treatment for uterine cancer.
  • Radiation therapy-Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. 
  • Chemotherapy-Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing
  • Hormone therapy-Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from growing. 
  • Biologic therapy-Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer.

Risks

Complications may include any of the following: 

  •  Anemia due to blood loss (before diagnosis).
  •  Perforation (hole) of the uterus, which may occur during a D and C or endometrial biopsy. Problems from surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

 

After Procedure

  • Check for recurring tumors and repetitive pelvic follow-up checks are required.
  • Maintenance of genital hygiene is very important.