TAVI

Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation is an alternative treatment to open heart surgery and involves a minimally invasive procedure in order to correct the openings in the Aortic valve, or Aortic Stenosis. TAVI is the only suitable substitute for those patients who cannot undergo open heart surgery due to high complications and risks involved. 

 

Know More About Surgery

The signs/symptoms indicating the need to consult your doctor for a Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation include- 

  • Chest Pain
  • Breathlessness
  • Dizziness, Fainting
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Swollen ankles, feet due to water retention

Aortic Stenosis or Aortic Valve Disease can be diagnosed by regular blood tests or Electrocardiograms. Carotid Doppler tests and 2D Echo use ultrasound to examine carotid arteries and provide detailed images of the heart and other structures. A cardiac MRI or CT scan is essential in confirming the requirement of a Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation / Replacement. 

Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation is carried out in order to replace the damaged Aortic valve. A catheter is guided through the artery to the heart using advanced imaging techniques and a balloon is inflated to make space for the new valve. The damaged valve is then replaced with a functional man-made or biological valve and the balloon is deflated.

 

There are several risks involved in Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation. The treatment may cause bleeding during or after, and there are chances of Aortic Regurgitation in some cases. There are possibilities of getting Cardiac endocarditis in which there is an infection in the inner lining of the heart. However, this procedure has relatively low risks and very high success rates as it is not an open heart surgery.  

Post-treatment, patients are required to stay in the hospital for at least 5 days. It is essential to take blood thinning medicines or anti-coagulants in order to prevent the formation of clots on the valve.

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TAVI

Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation is an alternative treatment to open heart surgery and involves a minimally invasive procedure in order to correct the openings in the Aortic valve, or Aortic Stenosis. TAVI is the only suitable substitute for those patients who cannot undergo open heart surgery due to high complications and risks involved. 

 

Symptoms

The signs/symptoms indicating the need to consult your doctor for a Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation include- 

  • Chest Pain
  • Breathlessness
  • Dizziness, Fainting
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Swollen ankles, feet due to water retention

Diagnosis

Aortic Stenosis or Aortic Valve Disease can be diagnosed by regular blood tests or Electrocardiograms. Carotid Doppler tests and 2D Echo use ultrasound to examine carotid arteries and provide detailed images of the heart and other structures. A cardiac MRI or CT scan is essential in confirming the requirement of a Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation / Replacement. 

Treatment

Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation is carried out in order to replace the damaged Aortic valve. A catheter is guided through the artery to the heart using advanced imaging techniques and a balloon is inflated to make space for the new valve. The damaged valve is then replaced with a functional man-made or biological valve and the balloon is deflated.

 

Risks

There are several risks involved in Trans-catheter Aortic Valve Implantation. The treatment may cause bleeding during or after, and there are chances of Aortic Regurgitation in some cases. There are possibilities of getting Cardiac endocarditis in which there is an infection in the inner lining of the heart. However, this procedure has relatively low risks and very high success rates as it is not an open heart surgery.  

After Procedure

Post-treatment, patients are required to stay in the hospital for at least 5 days. It is essential to take blood thinning medicines or anti-coagulants in order to prevent the formation of clots on the valve.

FAQ Section

1) What is a TAVI heart procedure?

The aortic valve controls blood flow between the left ventricle and the aorta which is the vessel that delivers oxygen-rich blood to the body. The two main problems that can occur with the aortic valve are it can become hardened and narrowed, or it can leak. The most common problem faced by the elderly is called age-related calcific degeneration in which the gradual buildup of calcium causes the valve to narrow. In patients who are at high risk of complications in open-heart or minimally invasive valve replacement surgery, the aortic valve can be replaced by transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

In TAVI, a biological valve made up of big or cow heart tissue is mounted inside a stent which is a circular wire mesh. The stent is then compressed so that it can fit inside a small delivery sheath or tube. The TAVI valve is then delivered to the aortic valve where the stent is expanded, and the biological valve inside begins to work. Unlike valve replacement through surgery, the calcified leaflets of the patient’s diseased aortic valve are not removed, instead, they are pushed to the side on the expansion stent where they help to lock the stent in place.

2) How long does it take to recover from a Tavi operation?

The rate of recovery after a Tavi operation varies from patient to patient, but most people take about 6 to 10 weeks to feel fully recovered.

3) How much does a TAVI procedure cost in India?

A TAVI procedure in India can cost around INR 15 lakh. This exorbitant price of the procedure is because of the cost of the TAVI valve whose market price sits in the neighborhood of INR 13 lakh.

4) What is the difference between Tavr and Tavi?

There is no difference between Tavr and Tavi. Tavr stands for transcatheter aortic valve replacement while Tavi stands for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. They both are the different name of the same procedure.

5) What is the success rate of Tavi?

The researchers found that the procedure had a 95.7 percent success rate in attempted Tavi, with thirty-day mortality rate being as low as 4 percent and stroke rate was noted to be 1.6 percent. After one-year 76 percent of patients completed their follow-up, and at one-year, the mortality rate was 17.5 percent and stroke rate was 3.5 percent.

6) What are the risks of Tavi?

Although TAVI has a high success rate with few surgical complications, like all other medical procedures, it comes with its own risks, and these risks can come in the form of complications that include vascular injuries, bleeding, atrioventricular conduction system injuries, stroke, AKI, and aortic regurgitation. Also, If an incorrect valve size for the patient's anatomy is used, it may lead to heart injury, valve leakage, or dislodgement.

7) How long does a Tavi operation take?

The transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI) procedure takes 45 to 60 minutes, but going into the operating theater, having the procedure performed and leaving the theater takes two to three hours.

8) Is Tavi considered surgery?

Tavi is a less invasive procedure that is designed to replace a diseased aortic valve and is not considered major surgery.

9) What is a TAVI valve made of?

TAVI valve is an artificial valve made of natural animal heart tissue which usually comes from a cow or a pig.

10) How long does a Tavi valve last?

Although mechanical valves are expected to last the life of the patient, the valves made of animal tissue are estimated to last 10 to 15 years or more. Tavi valve is also made of animal tissues, yet currently, there are only preliminary data to show that TAVR valves may last at least five years without showing any signs of early degeneration.