Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is a surgical procedure that involves the restoration, reconstruction or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two broad categories:-

  • Reconstructive plastic surgery- which includes reconstructing a part of the body or improving its function such as in the treatment of burns, microsurgery, hand surgery and so on.
  • Cosmetic surgery- cosmetic surgery is used to improve the appearance or look of a body part.

Cosmetic surgery may be used for the following purposes:

  • Abdominoplasty (tummy tuck)
  • Breast augmentation (breast implant), breast reduction or breast lift (mastopexy)
  • Lip enhancement
  • Rhinoplasty (reshaping of the nose)
  • Rhytidectomy (face lift)
  • Liposuction
  • Otoplasty (reshaping of the ear)
  • Buttock augmentation (buttock implant) or buttock lift by excision of excess skin 
Know More About Surgery

Reconstructive plastic surgery can be used to correct the following conditions:

  • Burns
  • Facial bone fractures
  • Congenital abnormalities such as cleft palates or cleft lips
  • Traumatic injuries
  • Developmental abnormalities
  • Breast reconstruction after mastectomy
  • Creating a congenitally absent new outer ear
  • Breast reduction plasty
  • Treating pressure ulcers

A number of techniques are used for plastic surgery depending on the area and need for surgery. Some of the techniques are as follows:

  • Skin grafts- A skin graft is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of healthy skin from an unaffected area of the body which is then used to cover damaged or lost skin. Skin grafts are used for open fractures (bone fractures that beak the skin), burns, large wounds and surgical wounds.  Skin grafts can be of two types:
    • Full thickness skin graft- the top layer of the skin (epidermis) and all the underlying layers of the skin are removed (dermis) and closed with stitches.
    • Partial thickness skin graft- the epidermis and a small part of the dermis is removed. It is left to heal on its own and not closed with stitches.
  • Tissue expansion- a balloon-like device called an expander is inserted under the skin and is filled with salt water over time, causing the skin to stretch and grow. It can be used for breast reconstruction or for larger wounds.
  •  Flap surgery- it involves transferring a live piece of tissue from one part of the body to another along with the blood vessels. The flap is stitched over the damaged area. It can be used for breast reconstruction, cleft lip and palates, open fractures and large wounds.

As with any surgery, plastic surgery can have a few complications:

  • Pain and discomfort
  • Bleeding
  • Risk of infection
  • Skin graft or flap failure due to restricted blood flow
  • Scars from the incisions
  • Implant failure wherein the implant could disfigure or leak
  • Disfigurement due to faulty cosmetic surgery

Recovery time depends upon the type of surgery performed and the area covered. The reconstructed area is usually covered with a sterile dressing to protect it from infection. The area from where the skin or tissue is taken is also covered until it heals which usually takes a few days to a couple weeks.

Plastic Surgery Cost in Mumbai Region

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Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is a surgical procedure that involves the restoration, reconstruction or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two broad categories:-

  • Reconstructive plastic surgery- which includes reconstructing a part of the body or improving its function such as in the treatment of burns, microsurgery, hand surgery and so on.
  • Cosmetic surgery- cosmetic surgery is used to improve the appearance or look of a body part.

Cosmetic surgery may be used for the following purposes:

  • Abdominoplasty (tummy tuck)
  • Breast augmentation (breast implant), breast reduction or breast lift (mastopexy)
  • Lip enhancement
  • Rhinoplasty (reshaping of the nose)
  • Rhytidectomy (face lift)
  • Liposuction
  • Otoplasty (reshaping of the ear)
  • Buttock augmentation (buttock implant) or buttock lift by excision of excess skin 

Symptoms

Reconstructive plastic surgery can be used to correct the following conditions:

  • Burns
  • Facial bone fractures
  • Congenital abnormalities such as cleft palates or cleft lips
  • Traumatic injuries
  • Developmental abnormalities
  • Breast reconstruction after mastectomy
  • Creating a congenitally absent new outer ear
  • Breast reduction plasty
  • Treating pressure ulcers

Treatment

A number of techniques are used for plastic surgery depending on the area and need for surgery. Some of the techniques are as follows:

  • Skin grafts- A skin graft is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of healthy skin from an unaffected area of the body which is then used to cover damaged or lost skin. Skin grafts are used for open fractures (bone fractures that beak the skin), burns, large wounds and surgical wounds.  Skin grafts can be of two types:
    • Full thickness skin graft- the top layer of the skin (epidermis) and all the underlying layers of the skin are removed (dermis) and closed with stitches.
    • Partial thickness skin graft- the epidermis and a small part of the dermis is removed. It is left to heal on its own and not closed with stitches.
  • Tissue expansion- a balloon-like device called an expander is inserted under the skin and is filled with salt water over time, causing the skin to stretch and grow. It can be used for breast reconstruction or for larger wounds.
  •  Flap surgery- it involves transferring a live piece of tissue from one part of the body to another along with the blood vessels. The flap is stitched over the damaged area. It can be used for breast reconstruction, cleft lip and palates, open fractures and large wounds.

Risks

As with any surgery, plastic surgery can have a few complications:

  • Pain and discomfort
  • Bleeding
  • Risk of infection
  • Skin graft or flap failure due to restricted blood flow
  • Scars from the incisions
  • Implant failure wherein the implant could disfigure or leak
  • Disfigurement due to faulty cosmetic surgery

After Procedure

Recovery time depends upon the type of surgery performed and the area covered. The reconstructed area is usually covered with a sterile dressing to protect it from infection. The area from where the skin or tissue is taken is also covered until it heals which usually takes a few days to a couple weeks.

FAQ Section

1) What is plastic surgery or reconstructive surgery?

Plastic surgery is the functional, structural, and aesthetic restoration of all manner of defects and deformities of the human body. The term originated from the Greek word plastikos which mean “to mold” or “to form.” Modern plastic surgery has forked into two broad themes. They are the reconstruction of anatomic defects and aesthetic enhancement of normal form. The surgical principles of plastic surgery remain focused on preserving vascularity, respecting anatomic zones, replacing like tissue with like tissue, and fostering wound healing by minimizing tissue trauma. As a diverse surgical specialty, the discipline of plastic surgery not only communicates with other disciplines of medicine but also merges medical science with the art of physical restoration. Innovative techniques used in plastic surgery are largely the result of the successful clinical application of advances in nanotechnology, tissue engineering, and gene therapy.

2) Is there a difference between plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery?

If you are unhappy with your appearance in some way then there are cosmetic procedures and plastic surgery techniques that can give you a more aesthetically pleasing appearance can or help you look younger. This can boost your confidence and self-esteem while also helping you get the results that you are hoping for. If you are unhappy with your appearance in some way then there are cosmetic procedures and plastic surgery techniques that can give you a more aesthetically pleasing appearance can or help you look younger. This can boost your confidence and self-esteem while also helping you get the results that you are hoping for.

So, what is the difference between plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures?

Cosmetic Procedures are Usually Less Invasive than Plastic Surgery procedures.

Cosmetic procedures are typical procedures that a cosmetic surgeon will perform in the office, with either no anesthesia or local anesthesia, and the treatments usually come with little or no downtime and fewer complications because they are less invasive than traditional plastic surgery procedures.

These procedures include:

  • 1.Dermal Fillers
  • 2.Botulinum toxin injections
  • 3.Fat freezing
  • 4.Anti-wrinkle injections
  • 5.Minor liposuction on smaller targeted areas.

Plastic Surgery can provide more drastic results, as well as results that can last longer than many temporary treatments available in the office. These methods do have some drawbacks, and they are not right for every patient. General anesthesia is usually required, and this comes with its own risks and complications.
Many plastic surgery techniques require significant downtime while you heal and recover. These methods are more invasive and they usually entail higher risks and a greater chance of complications as a result. Traditional plastic surgery can include:

  • 1.Extensive liposuction
  • 2.Breast implants
  • 3.Breast reduction
  • 4.Gender transition top surgery
  • 5.Tummy tuck
  • 6.Facelift
  • 7.Thigh and Buttock Lift

3) What are the side effects of plastic surgery?

All surgeries carry risk, and cosmetic procedures are no different. People with a history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, lung disease, or obesity have a higher risk of developing complications such as pneumonia, heart attack, stroke, or blood clots in the legs or lungs. Smoking also increases risks and interferes with the recovery.
Possible complications for any surgical procedure include:

  • 1.Complications related to anesthesia such as pneumonia, blood clots and in some rare cases even
  • death.
  • 2.Fluid build-up under the skin.
  • 3.Mild bleeding or bleeding significant enough to require a transfusion.
  • 4.Obvious scarring or skin breakdown.
  • 5.Numbness and tingling from nerve damage that may be permanent.

4) What are the types of Plastic Surgery?

  • Head, face, and eyes
  • Facelift
  • Brow/forehead lift
  • Eyelid Lift
  • Ear Pinning
  • Ear reshaping
  • Hair replacement surgery
  • Nasal surgery
  • Nose reshaping
  • Chin, cheek, or jaw reshaping / facial implants
  • Lip augmentation
  • Cleft lip and cleft palate
  • Craniosynostosis (craniofacial anomaly)
  • Mouth and teeth
  • Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • Breasts
  • Breast augmentation
  • Breast reconstruction
  • Breast reduction in men with gynecomastia
  • Breast Lift
  • Abdomen
  • Tummy tuck (abdominoplasty)
  • Liposuction
  • Hand and upper limb
  • Chase Hand & Upper Limb Center
  • Skin
  • Chemical peel
  • Dermabrasion / dermaplaning
  • Collagen/fat injectable fillers
  • Glycolic Peels
  • Laser Peels
  • Vein removal
  • Scar revision
  • Tattoo removal

5) How are plastic surgeries performed?

Plastic surgery usually involves a number of different techniques to move and manipulate body tissue.
They include:

Skin grafts:A skin graft is where healthy skin is removed from an unaffected and healthy area of the body and used to replace lost or damaged skin.

There are two main types of skin graft.

Partial or split thickness skin graft

This is where a thin layer of skin, which is as thin as tissue paper, is shaved from an area that usually heals well, such as the thigh buttocks, or calf. The area from where the skin is taken is called donor area, and it usually takes two to three weeks to heal and is pink for a few months before fading to leave a faint and hardly noticeable scar.


Full-thickness skin graft

This is where the full thickness of skin, which means the top layer of the skin and layers underneath, are removed and the area is directly closed. The sites often used for this procedure include the neck, behind the ear, the upper arm, and groin. The dressing is left in place for 5 to 7 days.


Tissue expansion

Tissue expansion is a procedure that encourages the body to "grow" extra skin by stretching the surrounding tissue. This extra skin can then be applied in the reconstruction the nearby area. Under general anesthetic, a balloon-like device called an expander is inserted under the skin near the area to be repaired, and the expander is gradually filled with salt water which causes the skin to stretch and grow.

If a large area of skin is affected, it can take as long as three or four months for the skin to grow enough, and during this time, the expander will create a lump in the skin, and once the skin has expanded sufficiently, a second operation is required to remove the expander and reposition the new tissue.


Flap surgery

Flap surgery involves the transfer of a living piece of tissue, along with the blood vessels that keep it alive, from one part of the body to another. It may be used for a variety of reasons, including breast reconstruction, large wounds, open fractures, and, in rare cases, for improving a palate and cleft lip. In most cases, the tissue remains partially attached to the body, creating a flap which is then
repositioned and stitched over the damaged area.

6) Why does one need to undergo Plastic Surgery?

In some cases, it is for aesthetic reasons that a patient decide to undergo plastic surgery, while it may be medically necessary for others. It may be difficult to face, but as we age, our bodies often show some signs of wear and tear, such as sagging skin, wrinkles, or loss of collagen, a muscle fiber that helps fill out the body over the skeletal framework. Pregnancy and nursing can also take its toll on a woman’s body. The breasts and abdomen become stretched out, and then rapidly shrink once the baby is born, and unfortunately, the breasts and abdomen may not conform back to the same shape and size as before pregnancy. This is often what leads many women who are done with childbirth and breastfeeding to consider undergoing a mother makeover procedure, which often consists of a tummy tuck and a breast lift, along with either breast reduction or augmentation. In some cases, a part of the body may not have formed properly, so plastic surgery is deemed medically necessary to properly reshape it. Rhinoplasties are good examples of these types of procedures. They are carried out when the interior structures of the nasal or sinus cavities may not have formed correctly, so the patient is unable to breathe properly, leading to snoring, sleep apnea, and recurrent sinus infections.

There are several reasons why people choose to undergo plastic surgery. In some cases, it may be to enhance their features. In others, it may be to fix an injury or deformity.

7) Can you die during plastic surgery?

As the margins of safety for the administration of sedation and local anesthesia are very narrow, the inexperienced may often get away with it.

Patients may die from cosmetic surgery in several ways, including:

Cardiac arrest caused by the toxic doses of local anesthetic. There is a narrow margin between therapeutic and toxic doses of local anesthetic, but when surgeons try to perform large procedures under local anesthetic these margins tend to fade away. Sometimes due to the sedation, the patient suffers airway obstruction and impairment of their breathing.

Sometimes, the patients die or are severely weakened because of tissue damage, infections and physiological stress from the procedures themselves. Particles of fat or prosthetic filler can enter the blood system and block the circulation causing cardiac arrest.

8) Can plastic surgery be covered by health insurance?

In general, each specific insurance company decides what procedures they will or will not cover, and the biggest factor insurance companies consider is whether the procedure is cosmetic or reconstructive in nature.

Reconstructive surgery refers to procedures performed to correct developmental defects, trauma, infection, or disease. Reconstructive procedures focus on improving function or normalizing the physical aspect of the patient.

Cosmetic surgery refers to procedures that are focused on improving the aesthetic appearance of the body or face to improve a patient's appearance and self-esteem.

9) What is the duration of recovery after plastic surgery?

Recommended time for recovery for popular procedures are:

  • Breast Augmentation- 1 week
  • Breast Lift- 1 week
  • Breast Reduction- 1 week
  • Brachioplasty- 1 week
  • Liposuction- 1 week
  • Gynecomastia- 1 week
  • Tummy Tuck- 3-4 weeks
  • Mommy Makeover- 3-4 weeks
  • Body Lift 3-4 weeks
  • Brow Lift- 1-2 weeks
  • Facelift- 2 weeks
  • Eyelid Surgery- 2 weeks