Bariatric Surgery

Obesity can lead to many harmful diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea, arthritis, high blood pressure and stroke. Hence, it is of prime importance to be healthy and to have the appropriate body weight. In many cases, people cannot reduce their weight by dieting and exercise. Therefore, Bariatric Surgery is performed in order to limit the amount of food intake of the patient. Bariatric Surgery has proved to be beneficial in long-term weight loss, and decreased susceptibility to diabetes and reduction in cardiac diseases. 

Know More About Surgery
Obesity can be diagnosed by measuring the BMI of the body.
A Bariatric Surgery is needed when the BMI is - 
  • > 37.5 
  • > 32.5 with associated diseases
  • > 27.5 with type 2 diabetes

Bariatric Surgery includes several procedures for the treatment of obese people such as-

  • Gastric bypass- This is the most standard weight loss surgery which involves the creation of a stomach pouch and the small intestine is re-routed by the creation of a bypass. This helps reducing the food quantity intake by a patient and also reduces the absorption of calories from the food.
  • Sleeve Gastrectomy- In this procedure, the left side of the stomach is removed which helps reduce the food intake. It reduces the feeling of hunger as the part of the stomach which produces the hormone that stimulates hunger is removed.
  • Mini Gastric Bypass- This procedure is a combination of a Gastric bypass and a Sleeve Gastrectomy. A sleeve of the stomach is made and connected to the bypass of the small intestine.
  • Ileal Transposition- This involves the interposition of the last segment of the ileum between the jejunum and the stomach. This helps in controlling diabetes as it controls blood sugar immediately. 
  • Biliopancreatic Division- This procedure is carried out for patients who are highly obese and have a BMI over 50. Some part of the stomach is removed and is connected to the last part of the small intestine.

There are several risks involved in a Bariatric Surgery. There are chances of pouch stretching in which the stomach may dilate over time and restore its original size which would again increase the weight of the patient. There are also possibilities of breakdown of staple lines as well as stomal stenosis in which a constriction is formed between the stomach and the small intestine causing digestive disorders. Due to the decreased pathway of absorption of food after the surgery, deficiencies in vitamins and minerals may occur. Bariatric Surgery may also result in dumping syndrome in which the food passes through the pathway too quickly. It also leads to higher risk of osteoporosis, diarrhea and malnutrition due to less absorption of nutrients.

It is essential to be on a liquid diet for at least 2 days after surgery. Only soft foods such as porridge, surd, egg whites etc. can be eaten then for about a month. The patient is recommended to walk regularly after the surgery and proper physical exercise should commence only after 3 months of surgery. The patient must take vitamin and mineral supplements to avoid deficiency diseases.