Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Ovarian Cancer is when there is a growth of abnormal cells in the ovary, the female reproductive gland. These cells multiply uncontrollably and accumulate to form a tumor. This tumor may metastasize to other parts of the body. Ovarian cancer is mostly prevalent in post-menopausal women. This cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in women.
 
There are several types of tumors of the ovary such as-
  • Epithelial tumors are the most common type of tumors which begin from the outer lining of the ovary
  • Germ cell tumors which originate from the germ cells- the cells that differentiate to form the eggs
  • Stromal tumors which starts from the tissue that secretes estrogen and progesterone.
These tumors may be benign if they do not spread to other parts (non- cancerous) or malignant if they metastasize to other parts of the body (cancerous).
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There are several signs / symptoms observed which indicate Ovarian Cancer:

  • Abdominal bloating and swelling
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pain in the pelvic region
  • Frequent urination
  • Changes in bowel patterns

Ovarian cancer can be diagnosed by routine pelvic examinations in which genitals are also closely examined externally as well as internally. A speculum is inserted inside the vagina in order to get images of the ovaries and uterus to check for all defects. Blood tests can also help diagnose ovarian cancer due to the presence of a specific protein on the ovarian cancer cells. Imaging tests such as ultrasounds and CT scan help determine the size, location and severity of the tumor.

Ovarian Cancer surgery is essential to remove the tumor found inside the ovaries. Depending upon the stage of the cancer, a suitable treatment is decided for the patient. In most cases, it is required to remove both the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus as well as the lymph nodes and omentum. This is known as Hysterectomy.
 
There are two types of Hysterectomy surgeries- 
  • Abdominal Hysterectomy in which the incision is made through the abdomen.
  • Vaginal Hysterectomy in which incision is made through the vagina.

After an ovarian cancer surgery, there are possibilities of getting infections and having high temperatures for some time. Vaginal bleeding may occur post-operation and there might be red/brown discharges. Sometimes too much blood may be lost and hence, the patient may require blood transfusions. During the surgery, there are chances of damaging the bladder and if it occurs, a second operation is required. Advanced ovarian cancer treatments may also damage the platelets which can increase the risk of having Leukemia.

The patient may be discharged within the time period of one week after surgery. It is essential that the patient does not engage in any strenuous activities for at least a month and takes all work easily. If the patient had not hit menopause prior to surgery, she will do so after the surgery.
 
She may observe the following signs which are normal - 
  • Hot flushes
  • Sweats
  • Dryness in the vaginal area
  • Easily tired

Ovarian Cancer Treatment Cost in India

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Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Ovarian Cancer is when there is a growth of abnormal cells in the ovary, the female reproductive gland. These cells multiply uncontrollably and accumulate to form a tumor. This tumor may metastasize to other parts of the body. Ovarian cancer is mostly prevalent in post-menopausal women. This cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in women.
 
There are several types of tumors of the ovary such as-
  • Epithelial tumors are the most common type of tumors which begin from the outer lining of the ovary
  • Germ cell tumors which originate from the germ cells- the cells that differentiate to form the eggs
  • Stromal tumors which starts from the tissue that secretes estrogen and progesterone.
These tumors may be benign if they do not spread to other parts (non- cancerous) or malignant if they metastasize to other parts of the body (cancerous).

Symptoms

There are several signs / symptoms observed which indicate Ovarian Cancer:

  • Abdominal bloating and swelling
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pain in the pelvic region
  • Frequent urination
  • Changes in bowel patterns

Diagnosis

Ovarian cancer can be diagnosed by routine pelvic examinations in which genitals are also closely examined externally as well as internally. A speculum is inserted inside the vagina in order to get images of the ovaries and uterus to check for all defects. Blood tests can also help diagnose ovarian cancer due to the presence of a specific protein on the ovarian cancer cells. Imaging tests such as ultrasounds and CT scan help determine the size, location and severity of the tumor.

Treatment

Ovarian Cancer surgery is essential to remove the tumor found inside the ovaries. Depending upon the stage of the cancer, a suitable treatment is decided for the patient. In most cases, it is required to remove both the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus as well as the lymph nodes and omentum. This is known as Hysterectomy.
 
There are two types of Hysterectomy surgeries- 
  • Abdominal Hysterectomy in which the incision is made through the abdomen.
  • Vaginal Hysterectomy in which incision is made through the vagina.

Risks

After an ovarian cancer surgery, there are possibilities of getting infections and having high temperatures for some time. Vaginal bleeding may occur post-operation and there might be red/brown discharges. Sometimes too much blood may be lost and hence, the patient may require blood transfusions. During the surgery, there are chances of damaging the bladder and if it occurs, a second operation is required. Advanced ovarian cancer treatments may also damage the platelets which can increase the risk of having Leukemia.

After Procedure

The patient may be discharged within the time period of one week after surgery. It is essential that the patient does not engage in any strenuous activities for at least a month and takes all work easily. If the patient had not hit menopause prior to surgery, she will do so after the surgery.
 
She may observe the following signs which are normal - 
  • Hot flushes
  • Sweats
  • Dryness in the vaginal area
  • Easily tired

FAQ Section

1) What is the most effective treatment of ovarian cancer ?

Surgery is the most effective treatment of ovarian cancer, when the vast majority of the cancer tissue can be removed successfully. Some early stage ovarian cancers are removed early so that the female fertility is preserved.

 

2) What is the treatment of stage 1 ovarian cancer ?

Surgery ( hysterectomy ) is the most often used method of ovarian cancer where the uterus, fallopian tubes and both the ovaries are also removed. It depends how much the cancer has spread locally. 

3) What are the new treatments for ovarian cancer ?

Newer treatment options for advanced stage ovarian cancer include- Antiangiogenics. These drugs starve the tumor by blocking the blood vessels that supply the tumor. This leads to gradual atrophy of the tumor and this prevents tumor from coming back. 

4) What are the places ovarian cancer spreads to ?

The advanced stage of ovarian cancer spreads to - liver, lungs, spleen, intestines, brain, skin and lymph nodes of the stomach. The cancer cells spread from the ovaries to distant body parts in the later, metastatic stages of ovarian cancer.

 

5) How long does the patient stay in the hospital after the ovarian cancer treatment ?

Most women will stay for around 3-7 days in the hospital after the surgery and continue to carry on with their work or office, 4 to 6 weeks after the surgery.

 

6) What are the first symptoms of ovarian cancer ?

The earliest symptoms of ovarian cancer are- cramping, bloating of the stomach, abdominal swelling. Since these symptoms are similar to the symptoms of digestive irritation, these are often overlooked and ignored by the patient until the cancer goes to an advanced stage.

 

7) How can one prevent recurrence of ovarian cancer?

One must follow a healthy diet routine, exercise regularly and eat immune boosting foods to keep immunity strong and prevent new diseases from occurring. One must go for regular health checkups with their cancer care team, for regular monitoring if there is any new tumor formation, or cancer recurrence after the ovarian cancer treatment.

 

8) What is the success rate of ovarian cancer treatment ?

With stage 1 ovarian cancer, in which the cancer cells are confined to one or both the ovaries, the risk of recurrence is as low as 10 percent. This means that the 5 year survival rate is 90 percent. 

 

9) What are the tests done to confirm whether the woman has ovarian cancer ?

The tests that confirm the ovarian cancer are- pelvic examination, transvaginal ultrasound and CA-125 blood test. 

 

10) What are the signs of an advanced stage of ovarian cancer ?

The signs of advanced cases of ovarian cancer are- abdominal pain, constipation, kidney pain, bloating and weight loss. 

 

11) What is the cost of Ovarian Cancer Treatment in India ?

The cost of ovarian cancer treatment in India varies across different cities and hospitals.

Cost of Ovarian Cancer Treatment in India
                                    CITY                   COST
   Cost of Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Mumbai   INR 390000- INR 600000
   Cost of Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Bangalore   INR 370000- INR 580000
   Cost of Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Delhi   INR 370000- INR 580000
   Cost of Ovarian Cancer Treatment in Chennai   INR 350000- INR 550000